However, there is debate about whether mental health is a primary cause or a secondary effect.

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Select a recent Health Care Legislature (within 5 years)
Literature review regarding issue (3 peer reviewed articles)
5-Page Maximum (not including title page and references)
Statistical data related to issue: population impacted, and health outcome of issue and legislature
Nursing role in passing the legislature
APA Format
References within 5 years
plagiarism report less 7%
see carefully the other instructions attached in files
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A Literature Review on Dr. Lorna Breen Health Care Provider Protection Act
Italo Genesi Quijada
Maryge Olaves Gonzalez
Pedro Alvarez
Vanessa Rubiano Vargas
Natalia Ladino Marulanda
Yenneris Duque Lopez
Mayrelis Silva
Miami Regional University
October 15, 2022
Literature Review
A growing number of nurses, doctors, and other healthcare workers reported that the healthcare system does not provide them with the necessary support to help them cope with the stress of their jobs. As a result, many nurses, doctors, and other health care workers are turning to alternative models of care for themselves and their patients. Nurses are often the first point of contact for mental health services and are responsible for protecting the rights of both patients and other practitioners (Lee & Nambudiri, 2021). However, in the face of a catastrophe such as the COVID pandemic, even nurses need a mental health assessment. Healthcare workers need to remain calm and aware of the stress caused by their profession and seek support for themselves. Consequently, this literature review analyzes research on Dr. Lorna Breen’s Health Care Provider Protection Act and the problems leading to its development.
Dr. Lorna Breen Health Care Provider Protection Act
Nurses have been the most common people working on the margins of the healthcare system for the last few decades. Nurses have led several of the most notable initiatives and reforms. Such have been the reductions in the number of days of paid leave and the creation of the National Council for Mental Health. The implementation of these reforms has been supported by nurses in the public sector and some in the private sector (Prestia, 2020). Similarly, nurses supported the recent legislation.
The Act has created a new framework for protecting providers’ health in the United States. This legislation passed the House in January 2019 with bipartisan support and was made law on the 18th of March (Melnyk et al., 2021). The new legislation, which is the first to offer this support, is dedicated to Lorna Breen, a critical care specialist, and college staff at the University of New York. She committed suicide in April 2020 during the height of the initial COVID wave. She struggled physically and psychologically after fighting COVID-19 and resumed her job in a crowded emergency unit of a Manhattan facility (Melnyk et al., 2021). She was not bothered about her well-being but about losing her professional license or developing a profile as a person who could not manage the strain of her job if she sought treatment.
The Act aims to protect mental health services and people’s lives against the suicides, burnout, and mental and behavioral health conditions of employees and their families in the workplace (Lee & Nambudiri, 2021). The goal of the bill is to reduce suicide, depression, anxiety, and other common mental health disorders by addressing the root causes of the problem.
Chronic Stress and Mental Health Problems in Healthcare Workers
Chronic stress in healthcare workers is a significant issue, and the coronavirus pandemic further worsened the situation, leading to a long-lasting impact on the health of healthcare workers. CDC found that stress levels were high in the United States and across all nursing sectors in early January (Laraib et al., 2018). The CDC reported that nurses in the United States reported significant distress in their daily lives and patient interactions (Laraib et al., 2018). It was alarming that the rate of reported suicide among nurses was approximate twice the national average.
Neely-Fairbanks (2018) also researched the health and well-being of healthcare professionals in the U.S. for the past two decades. The study examined the psychological factors affecting healthcare workers in the U.S. to understand better the role of stress in the lives of healthcare professionals. The findings of this study highlight the importance of studying mental health among workers at risk for or who have experienced symptoms of mental stress.
Another work by Vizheh (2020) and his associates focused on the effects of chronic stress on health workers, the prevalence of stress, and the impact of stress on medical practice. It is based on a survey of more than 400 medical students in the United States. The survey examined the prevalence of chronic stress, stress-related disorders, and the role of health professionals in addressing stress. The results indicated that the prevalence of stress-related disorders in medical students was higher than usual.
Approximately half of the nursing staff under 35 who participated in a December poll by the United States American Nurses Foundation said they had received mental health treatment since April 2020 (Shreffler, Petrey & Huecker, 2020). Additionally, 46% of nurses below 25 and 45% between 24 and 34 reported not having a good emotional state. Owing to COVID-19, those newly qualified nurses were also highly apt to have gone through an extraordinarily traumatic, upsetting, or stressful occurrence. Additionally, participants below 25 years were two times more likely than those above 25 to report experiencing burnout.
According to the survey by Lee & Nambudiri (2021), male and female physicians were likely to encounter employment challenges compared with other persons, and nurses were already more at risk of self-harm than the wider public. Compared to the broader population, female nurses had a 1.5 times higher chance of committing suicide. A background of difficulties with mental health and the presence of a written statement were two other factors that were more prevalent among nurses who committed suicide.
The literature on chronic stress in healthcare workers is vast and includes several theories on the subject. The theories are mainly based on the assumption that stress results from an imbalance between demands and resources.
The Associated Stigma
The stigma of healthcare workers seeking mental health treatment is a severe problem in America, with some professionals, particularly doctors, not understanding the mental health issues that may arise from the demands of their patients. It is a significant barrier to accessing services, including mental health support, and is especially concerning for those who work in mental health services.
Psychiatry and mental health professionals are often reluctant to seek help for depression and anxiety as this may be seen as an indication of weakness and mental illness in the eyes of the public (Teksin et al., 2020). However, the stigma surrounding mental health issues is perpetuated through the lack of understanding of mental illness. In addition, the stigma surrounding mental health issues is particularly prevalent in the country, where many assume the mentally ill are sick individuals and should be treated as such.
For many healthcare workers, the stigma associated with mental health issues is so strong that many are reluctant to seek help. The reasons for this may be many (Neely-Fairbanks et al., 2018). For example, a primary diagnosis can have lifelong repercussions. The stigma of mental health issues can also be compounded by the fact that many people do not seek help because they feel angry or believe no one will listen.
The stigma of seeking medical assistance for issues surrounding mental health issues is a widespread phenomenon that has been recognized for years. The stigma results from the lack of knowledge about mental health and the reluctance of the public to talk about it. Researchers in the field see stigma as a significant barrier to mental health care and sometimes a symptom of a more general lack of support or resources for individuals with problems regarding mental health (Prestia, 2020). The stigma of seeking medical assistance for issues surrounding mental health is a primary concern for the researchers because it is believed that stigma and prejudice can result in patients not seeking help and not receiving treatments.
The stigma of seeking mental health treatment has been discussed in the presented studies. A large body of literature discusses the stigmatizing attitudes toward those seeking mental health treatment. The literature suggests that stigmatizing attitudes towards mental health treatment may result from underlying mental health issues. However, there is debate about whether mental health is a primary cause or a secondary effect.
Conclusion
The healthcare profession must continue to evolve and become more effective. These studies indicate that stigma is related to seeking mental health treatment and that the stigma associated with suicide is often experienced as fear and shame. As such, it is essential to consider how stigma can be minimized or avoided in a way that does not lead to severe implications. The passage of this legislation is a crucial first step in giving nurses and other healthcare experts the assistance they require to lessen some of the incredible pressure they have been operating under. As a result, the environment of passivity and quiet that stops most healthcare professionals from requesting assistance for problems with mental health whenever they require it will also begin to fade.
References
Laraib, A., Sajjad, A., Sardar, A., Wazir, M. S., & Nazneen, Z. (2018). Perspective about mental illnesses: A survey of health care providers of Abbottabad. Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad, 30(1), 97-102. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Adan-Sardar/publication/323583300_Perspective_About_Mental_Illnesses_A_Survey_Of_Health_Care_Providers_Of_Abbottabad/links/628e38a26886635d5ca1c03b/Perspective-About-Mental-Illnesses-A-Survey-Of-Health-Care-Providers-Of-Abbottabad.pdf
Lee, M. S., & Nambudiri, V. E. (2021). Beyond burnout: Talking about physician suicide in dermatology. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 85(4), 1055. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8415736/
Melnyk, B. M., Hsieh, A. P., Davidson, J., Carpenter, H., Choflet, A., Heath, J., … & Stand, L. (2021). Promoting nurse mental health. Am Nurse J, 16(1), 20-22. https://www.myamericannurse.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/an1-Suicide-1216b.pdf
Neely-Fairbanks, S. Y., Rojas-Guyler, L., Nabors, L., & Banjo, O. (2018). Mental illness knowledge, stigma, help-seeking behaviors, spirituality, and the African American church. American Journal of Health Studies, 33(4). https://amjhealthstudies.com/index.php/ajhs/article/view/69
Prestia, A. S. (2020). The Moral Obligation of Nurse Leaders: COVID-19. Nurse leader, 18(4), 326-328. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7167551/
Shreffler, J., Petrey, J., & Huecker, M. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on healthcare worker wellness: a scoping review. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 21(5), 1059. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7514392/
Teksin, G., Uluyol, Ö. B., Onur, Ö. S., Teksin, M. G., & Ozdemir, H. M. (2020). Stigma-related factors and their effects on healthcare workers during COVID-19 pandemics in Turkey: a multicenter study. Şişli Etfal Hastanesi Tip Bülteni, 54(3), 281-290. https://jag.journalagent.com/sislietfaltip/pdfs/SETB-02800-ORIGINAL_RESEARCH-TEKSIN%5BA%5D.pdf
Vizheh, M., Qorbani, M., Arzaghi, S. M., Muhidin, S., Javanmard, Z., & Esmaeili, M. (2020). The mental health of healthcare workers in the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders, 19(2), 1967-1978. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40200-020-00643-9

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