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Using my draft help write a research paper based on Walker and Avant’s research principles create a paper using APA 7th edition format with Level 1 and Level 2 headings based off treatment of veterans in a vaccine clinic for COVID-19. The introduction must be in 1st person and only 1 page long. Identify all concepts of the Health Promotion Model. Using the original sources and the articles already cited since they have been preapproved. Don’t change research article 1 and 2. It must be 6-10 pages long.
(Title) The Health Promotion Model and the Immunization System
Using my theory, I would like to write about the human response to the current immunization system. I chose this concept based on my experience working in a vaccine clinic. I have met patients with extreme views and feelings toward receiving various vaccinations since the introduction of the COVID-19 vaccine in 2020. My goal is to decide if the varying feelings toward the immunization system are based on societal or biological factors. The World Health Organization defines health promotion as the process of enabling people to increase control over and improve their health (Pronk et al.,2021). The Health Promotion Model (HPM) designed by Nola J. Pender in 1982, explains “societal responses to seeking and obtaining medical services that promote a healthy existence” (Alice Petiprin, 2021, “Pender’s Health Promotion Model”). The health promotion model considers societal barriers as well as human norms and values.
In my paper, I expect to discover the varying perspectives surrounding preventive care. It will include a comprehensive description of the theory as depicted by original healthcare and nursing practice sources. From the brief description of the theory, the paper divulges into the imperative theory concepts that structure the Health Promotion Model. It also discusses the application of the theory in two published and sources, the application of the theory to support current and future nursing practice. Finally, it offers an evaluation context of the theory focusing on its validity, generalizability, strengths, and weaknesses, and understanding of its congruence with the current nursing standards, therapeutics, and interventions.
Health Promotion Model Description
The Health Promotion Model (HPM) was developed by Dr. Nola Pender in 1982. The theory focuses on helping societies to achieve higher levels of health outcomes and well-being. By Dr. Pender’s definition, health promotion refers to the activities directed toward developing the resources of clients that maintain or enhance well-being while prevention refers to activities that seek to protect clients from potential or actual health threats and their harmful consequences (Pender, 1982). The misconception of the immunization system has resulted in a more complex and dynamic issue known as vaccine hesitancy. Utilizing this model, we seek to understand the needs of veterans and their reasoning to want to prevent diseases and maintain their well-being. The Health Promotion Model seeks to understand the impact of perceived personal control and interprets human response to receiving care. It dissects and examines health-protecting behaviors. The Health Promotion Model focuses on the movement of the individual toward a positive valance state of increased health and well-being (Pender, 1982). In the vaccine clinic as in any healthcare setting, all factors of a patient’s existence must be considered. This includes the human response to mandatory vaccines, one’s ability to obtain and afford medical care within their environment, an individual’s personal beliefs and behaviors surrounding the medical treatment, and the political climate in which health services are being offered. The Health Promotion Model helps nurses understand the motivation towards maintaining one’s health status.
Origins of the Health Promotion Model
The Health Promotion Model was created by Pender in 1982 and was later revised in 1987, 1996, and 2002 based on changing theories and perspectives. Dr. Pender’s background in nursing, human development, experimental psychology, and education led her to use a holistic nursing perspective, social psychology, and learning theory as foundations for the HPM (Sakraida, 2013). It is used to provide a framework to explain and predict specific health behaviors (McEwen and Wills 2019).
Health Promotion Model Concepts
The HPM links the human response to the immunization systems with individual perceptions, modifying factors, and the likelihood of action. It is anchored in three main concepts: Individual attributes and experiences, behavior-specific knowledge, and behavioral outcomes or results. In the first concept, the theory argues that everyone survives with unique personal attributes and experiences that affect subsequent decisions and behaviors. The second concept argues that there is a set of variables for every behavior-specific cognition affecting the vital motivational significance (Health Promotion, 1982). Such variables can be modified through nursing and public health actions. For the sensible role of the theory, the health-promoting behaviors should lead to improved health, stabilized cognitions, sustained functionality, and improved quality of life.
Propositions of the Health Promotion Model
The propositions found in the HPM, as related to the care of veterans, center around the prior behaviors, experiences, and acquired or inherited characteristics that influence beliefs, affect, and feelings surrounding immunization. Patients are only willing to commit to behaviors that give them a sense of control over their care. If veterans have perceived any barriers to obtaining a vaccine, it will hinder their commitment to seeking care. Veterans are influenced by their providers, peers, and families. Situational influences such as politics or an election year will determine if veterans seek prevention treatment especially surrounding a global pandemic such as COVID-19.
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Health Promotion Model
The strengths of the HPM are that it is simple to follow and easy to incorporate into a plan of action to encourage veterans to obtain the recommended vaccines. The primary focus of the HPM is that it is focused on the promotion of health and disease prevention and works in varying theories of healthcare. It promotes healthcare providers’ independence in offering educational resources and health-promoting interventions to patients. The weakness of the HPM is that it combines multiple frameworks and theories that lead to confusion when determining the best method to convince patients to seek a specific form of care. Also, if a veteran has already experienced a particular disease such as COVID-19 it does not suggest how to apply the model in that situation. While it may take into account the many variables such as income, age, and sex it does not emphasis how to over these challenges.
Application of The Health Promotion Model in Research
Health promotion activities aimed at improving access to better information and services plays a vital role in giving people more control over their health and well-being. Health promotion can make an essential contribution to fighting a global pandemic such as COVID-19. As a nurse in the vaccine clinic, we give veterans agency over their own health decisions allowing them the freedom to obtain the information if needed and make informed decisions to guide health-promoting behaviors such as receiving the COVID-19 vaccine.
Research Study #1
Simkhada et al. (2020) conducted a qualitative study sharing integral insights about the role of health promotion theory in mitigating the threats and health consequences of COVID-19. To depict the dimensions of the theory’s key concepts, the researchers depicted the behavioral and knowledge paradigms of key elements of the theory. Vaccine response, preventing behavior and empowering the healthcare systems and community form the bulk of the key concepts of the theory. Behavior-specific cognitions and effects are largely demonstrated with stakeholder and community engagement forming the attributes of individual characteristics and experiences. Other applications of the key concepts are guiding prevention and awareness of the symptoms and threats through community-based programming. Health literacy is an integral aspect. Guided by the professional support of organizations such as WHO and the US CDC, the health education and literacy aspects discussed in the article are presumably designed to achieve positive behavior outcomes as required in the health promotion model (HPM).
Research Study #2
Mendias, E.P., & Parr, D.P. (2007) conducted a quantitative study using a researcher-designed self-report survey to identify the needs, barriers, and preferred learning modalities of outpatients with HIV/AIDS. A non-random sample of 151 adults completed a researcher-designed self-report survey. The study aimed to identify and analyze the factors influencing HIV/AIDS self-care behaviors in a community-based outpatient clinic. Focusing on health promotion principles the research was inherently designed on the Health Promotion Model foundation. It further expresses the paradigms of the theory concepts by depicting other variables such as personal characteristics, compliance with measures, and information-reinforcing factors that are essential in building a successful and effective response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic Education as an element of behavior-specific cognitions, including health literacy and access to preventive health action education, expresses the domain of the theory in the study. In a significant way, the study is guided and principled in the concepts of the health promotion theory.
Application of The Health Promotion Model to Nursing Practice
Like any other nursing theory, the Health Promotion Model serves as an imperative guide assessment that offers the rationale for collecting valid data about the health status of veterans in an outpatient setting, like in the case of the COVID-19 vaccine clinic. Clinical and educational practice in the COVID-19 clinic is all dependent on this model. The model concept of interest is the behavior-specific knowledge and the effect that gives it vital motivational significance to receive a vaccine or not. It is used to address the concerns of veterans surrounding vaccines. It can answer why the veteran refuses the vaccine. Does the veteran have a history of allergic reactions, and are educated on the risk of not receiving the vaccine, is it due to the history of governmental trust as in the past service members being infected with deadly viruses and being studied?
The novel COVID-19 is a huge threat that requires intense information and specific knowledge from the healthcare frontier to the public. The concept shapes the behavior outcomes that are key in building trust in a system that has not always been trustworthy. It is keen on individual and collective health responsibilities that must be upheld by all healthcare professionals.
In future practice, the concept of behavior-specific knowledge is one of the primary driving practices of psychiatric and mental health care as well as future global outbreaks. It can be beneficial in shaping future interpersonal environments, perceived competencies, and self-efficacy to execute certain behaviors toward specific health behaviors. The potential practice question based on the propositions of the Health Promotion Model is based on perceived self-efficacy challenges affecting the veteran population in the struggle against highly infectious diseases such as COVID-19.
Health Promotion Model Evaluation
Based on empirical testing of the theory, Health Promotion Model appears highly valid with immensely integrated concepts and parameters used in nursing and healthcare practices. It offers the foundation for self-responsibility, information access, and control of one’s behavior toward infections. The behavioral aspect of the responsibility towards individual and collective health outcomes is vital for nursing and healthcare systems to respond efficiently to outbreaks and novel infections.
Generalizability of the Health Promotion Model
The generalizability of the Health Promotion Model is inevitable in healthcare systems. The three concepts define the actions taken by nursing and healthcare when responding to the medical needs of veterans. It is applicable in almost every care setting since the behavioral perspectives of the patient and healthcare professional are essential in ensuring quality healthcare outcomes. From lifestyle-oriented disease to infectious disease treatment and control, behavioral outcomes, perceptional influences, and cognitions can either facilitate or impede health promotion or a certain recovery process.
Social and Cultural Influence
There is a vast influence of culture and social domains on healthcare. The Health Promotion Model is relevant socially and cross-culturally since it largely affects the perceptions of health, disease, and mortalities. The beliefs and behaviors about the causes of diseases, responses and approaches to health promotion, experience and expression of illness and pain, and the categories of treatment and care interventions are all influenced by social and cross-cultural dimensions. The social determinants of health (SDH) are all captured in this theory, making it socially and cross-culturally relevant.
Contribution to Nursing
The discipline of nursing is predominantly shaped by nursing and practice theories, including the Health Promotion Theory. With the promotion model domain, the theoretical concepts are vital in helping nursing and healthcare systems establish the right behavioral and healthcare responses to shape individual and societal well-being. The theory encourages healthcare and nursing professionals to provide sustainable resources to assist patients in attaining behavior-specific changes (McEwen & Mills, 2019). The theory guides knowledge development and helps patients, nursing and healthcare professionals, and managers comprehend and acknowledge their unique contributions to healthcare service and healthy society in general (OHIO, 2021). Equally, the theory directs research and education in nursing and healthcare practice.
The health promotion model is the bedrock for other healthcare and nursing models. The theory’s concepts are vital to ensuring that potential patients and affected populations are well prepared to enhance self-responsibility towards their healthcare outcomes. The theory should be adopted as part of the mainstream elements of nursing and healthcare training to ensure health professionals have the educational background needed to successfully encourage health promotional behaviors that obtain the necessary response to prevent illness and support one’s well-being. The link between the healthcare providers and patients, such as the veterans within a vaccine clinic, should be strengthened to facilitate the development and influence of the model as society becomes more and more vulnerable to health challenges and disease outbreaks.
McEwen M. & Mills E. (2019). Theoretical Basis for Nursing 5th Edition. Philadelphia : Wolters Kluwer Health.
Mendias, E. P., & Paar, D. P. (2007). Perceptions of health and self-care learning needs of
outpatients with HIV/aids. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 24(1), 49–64.
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OHIO. (2021, October 11). contribute to the discipline of nursing. Retrieved from https://onlinemasters.ohio.edu/blog/why-is-nursing…
Pender, N. J. (1982). Health promotion in nursing practice. Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Simkhada P., Mahato P., Tamang P., Teiljlingen E., & Shahi P. (2020). The Role of Health Promotion during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Health Promotion 8, 1-4.
Sakraida, T.J. (2013) The Health Promotion Model. In: Alligood, M.R. and Marriner
Tomey, A., Eds., Nursing Theorists and Their Work, 8th Edition, Chapter 21,
Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis
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